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Gilbert værk

Gilberts Værk.-Guerickes Forsøg. – Ledere og Isolatorer. – Elektrisk Pendul og
Elektroskop. – Hvad er Elektricitet: – To Slags elektriske Tilstande.- Gnidnings-
elektrisermaskinen. – Leidnerflasken eller Kondensatoren. – Elektrisk Fordeling. –
Forsøg på at anvende Gnidningselektriciteten.

Ikke mindst, fordi Gilbert gik frem på den angivne Måde og viste
andre samme Vej, fortjener han at kaldes Grundlæggeren af den elektriske
Videnskab; ser vi alene på Resultaterne, må hans Arbejde kun kaldes
en ringe Begyndelse. – Hans Arbejde bestod væsentlig deri, at han for en stor Mængde forskellige Stoffer undersøgte, om de ligesom Rav fik
Tiltrækningskraft ved Gnidning. Det viste sig, at dette bl. a. var Tilfældet
med Diamant, Safir, Bjærgkrystal, Svovl, Harpiks. Glas m. m., medens der
var mange andre Stoffer og deriblandt navnlig Metallerne, som han ikke
kunde gøre tiltrækkende. Den ved Gnidning frembragte Tiltrækningskraft kaldte han den elektriske Kraft og de Stoffer, der bar sig ad
som Rav, kaldte
han elektriske, de
andre uelektriske disse sidste Benævnelser har man
imidlertid atter måttet opgive af Grunde, vi snart
skal lære at kende.

Selve Ordet Elektricitet har Gilbert
ikke brugt; det er
først indført adskilligt årtier senere, måske af Irlænderen
Boyle, der 1675
udgav en Bog med Titlen “Om mekanisk Frembrin-
gelse af Elektricitet“.

Gilberts magnetiske Undersøgelser bragte tilsyneladende mere betyd-
ningsfulde Resultater end de elektriske; men her havde han også et fyl-
digere Grundlag at bygge på. Allerede i Oldtiden vidste man, at visse
Jernmalm havde Evne til at tiltrække Jern; og på Gilberts Tid havde
Sømændene længe brugt Kompasset som Vejviser på deres Rejser. Et
sådant Kompas kunde simplest dannes af et Stykke af den tiltrækkende
Jernmalm, som lå på et Bræt, der svømmede i et Fad Vand: Malm
stykket vilde da altid vende en bestemt Side mod Nord. Malmen kaldtes
Magnetsten, vistnok fordi sådan Malm fandtes ved Magnesia i Lilleasien.

I Stedet for selve Malmen kunde man imidlertid bruge en tynd Stålstang,
som ved Strygning med den tiltrækkende Malm fik samme Egenskaber
som denne; anbragt på et svømmende Bræt eller ophængt, så at den
frit kunde dreje sig om en lodret Akse, vilde den indstille sig med den
ene Ende mod Nord og den anden mod Syd. At den retningsvisende
Stålstang (Magnetnål, Kompasnål) ikke pegede lige mod Nord, men
afveg lidt fra Nord-Sydlinjen og ulige meget på forskellige Steder af
Jorden, vidste man også på Gilberts Tid. Han samlede imidlertid al 11-
dens Viden om Magnetstenen og Kompasnålen til et ordnet Hele og
føjede talrige nye Oplysninger til.

Blandt andet fremhævede han klart Forskellen mellem den elektriske
Tiltrækningskraft hos gnedet Rav, Svovl, Glas O. s. v. og den ,magnetiske“
Tiltrækningskraft hos Magnetstenen og
hos Jern eller Stål, der var strøget med
den; tidligere havde man sammenblandet
disse Kræfter. Medens den elektriske Til-
trækning virker på alle lette Ting, hvad
Stof de end er af, virker den magnetiske

Tiltrækning kun på Jernmalm, Jern og Stål, altså på de Stoffer, der selv kan
blive magnetiske, men til Gengæld er
den som oftest langt stærkere end den elektriske. Medens den elektriske
Tiltrækningsevne kun holder sig kort Tid og navnlig svinder hurtigt
bort i fugtigt Vejr, er Magnetismen en naturlig og varig Egenskab hos
Magnetstenen; også hos Stål, hvor den fremkaldes ved Kunst, holder
den sig i lang Tid temmelig usvækket, særlig når det er hårdt Stål;
blødt Jern, som hurtigt og let bliver magnetisk allerede ved Nærmelsen
af en Magnetsten eller en Stålmagnet, kan derimod ikke bevare Magne-
tismen. Endvidere kan vi nævne, at den elektriske Tiltrækningsevne for-
deler sig helt anderledes over en gneden Stang af Glas, Svovl eller lign.
end den magnetiske over en Stålstang. Glasstangen bliver tiltrækkende
overalt, hvor man gnider den, Stålstangen kun i Nærheden af Enderne;
dypper man en Magnetstang i Jernfilspåner, hænger der et tykt Lag på
ude ved Enderne, men færre og færre ind mod Midten, og herinde i
Reglen slet ingen. Anbringer man Magnetstangen, så at den kan dreje
sig, vil den som nævnt stille sig således, at den peger mod Nord med
den ene Ende, der kaldes Nordenden eller Nordpolen”, mod Syd med
den anden Ende (Sydenden eller , Sydpolen“), medens den elektriske
Glasstang vilde stå lige godt i alle Retninger. Nærmer man på forskellige Måder to drejelige Magnetnåle til hinanden, viser det sig, at den
enes Nordende tiltrækker den andens Sydende, medens derimod
de to Nordender frastøder hinanden, og de to Sydender ligeledes
frastøder hinanden; at også elektriske
Legemer kan virke frastødende, om end
efter andre Regler, viste sig snart; men
dette havde Gilbert endnu ikke opdaget.
Hvis man har en Stålmagnet, kan man
let tilvejebringe en drejelig Magnetnål,
idet man med Stålmagnetens ene Ende
stryger en Strikkepind gentagne Gange,
stadig i samme Retning og derefter nedlægger Pinden i en Fure i en stor Kork-
Kompasnål.

I Tyskland lykkedes det Otto v. Guericke (1602-1686), Borgmester
i Magdeborg, bekendt som Luftpumpens Opfinder, at forstærke de elek-
triske Virkninger betydeligt, idet han lavede, hvad man kunde kalde den
første Elektrisermaskine. – Det var en Svovlkugle, gennem hvilken der
gik en Jernaksel med et Håndsving, så at det hele kunde anbringes i
et Stativ og drejes rundt. Når man under Omdrejningen holdt Hånden
– der måtte være tør — på Kuglen, blev denne stærkt elektrisk.
Guericke gjorde nu et par nye og mærkelige Opdagelser. Han så, at
et Dun, som blev tiltrukket af Kuglen, atter blev “frastødt af den, efter at
det havde berørt den; ja, når han tog Jernakslen med Kuglen i Hånden,
kunde han jage det frastødte Dun rundt i Luften, idet det hele
Tiden flygtede for Kuglen. Til den tidligere kendte elektriske Tiltrækning
kom der altså nu en elektrisk Frastødning.


What to know about beauty?


Endvidere fandt Guericke, at det af Svovlkuglen frastødte Dun blev
tiltrukket af forskellige uelektriske Genstande, f. Eks. af hans eget
Legeme. Det fløj f. Eks. hen på hans Næse; men efter at det havde
rørt ved Næsen eller en Finger, kunde det atter tiltrækkes af Svovlkuglen, så at det altså kunde fare frem og tilbage mellem Kuglen og
en Finger.
For at gentage Guerickes Forsøg behøver man ikke at have nogen
Slags Elektrisermaskine. Svovlkuglen kan bl. a. erstattes af et Glasrør
(f. Eks. et Lampeglas), en Glasstang eller en Flaske, som man tørrer godt,
helst ved Varme, og derefter gnider med en Uldklud eller et Silketørklæde.
1 Stedet for et Dun kunde man bruge små, ganske tynde Papirstumper
eller tyndt Bladaluminium. Særlig godt til Gnidning af Glas er forøvrigt
en blød Læderlap, hvorpå der er strøget Amalgam, d. v. s. en Blanding
af Kviksølv og andet Metal. (Et godt Amalgam til dette Brug kan dannes
af Tin, Zink og Kviksølv. Men det er ikke så let at lave og købes derfor
helst tilberedt. Læderet indgnides med en lille smule Tælle eller renset
Svinefedt; Amalgamet pulveriseres fint og strøs på, hvorefter det ind-
gnides godt med en korkprop el. lign.).

Ved at gnide sin Svovlkugle i Mørke iagttog Guericke, at Gnidningen
frembragte et tydeligt, men svagt og uroligt Lys ved den gnidende Hånd.
Tillige kunde han altid under Gnidningen høre en svag Knitren, når
han nærmede Øret til Kuglen. Lignende Lys- og Lydfænomener blev
snart frembragt af andre; det viste sig, at man af stærkt elektriske Gen-
stande kunde trække små Gnister, der ledsagedes af svage knald, og
man anede, at dette var Lyn og Torden i formindsket Målestok.
Endvidere viste det sig, at elektriske Genstande kunde påvirke Følelsen.

Elektriciteten

Menneskets Kendskab til Elektriciteten må siges at være så gammelt
som Menneskeslægten selv; thi i Lyn og Torden har de elektriske Kræfter
fra de ældste Tider trådt Menneskene i Møde på en vildere og vold-
sommere Måde end de andre Naturkræfter. Men vi ved ikke, når Men-
nesket først lærte selv at frembringe elektriske Kræfter, eller hvem der
først har opfundet denne Kunst. Opfinderen kan have været en lille Dreng,
der for årtusinder siden under sin Leg ved Danmarks Kyst fandt et
Stykke Rav, pudsede det med en Flig af sin Skinddragt og opdagede, at
Ravet efter Gnidningen tiltrak Hårene i Skindet eller lette Dun. Men
den samme lagttagelse er sikkert gjort mange forskellige steder, og hvor-
fra Kundskaben derom først har udbredt sig i videre Kredse, kan ikke
afgøres.

Imidlertid er det Oldtidens Grækere, der har overleveret os de første
skriftlige Beretninger om denne mærkelige Egenskab hos Ravet, som de
vistnok fik fra Vesterhavets og Østersøens Kyster gennem fønikiske Sø-
mænd: og det er fra det græske Navn for Rav, , Elektron“, at Ordet
Elektricitet senere er afledet; Ordet Elektron skal forøvrigt selv være
dannet af et græsk Ord, som betyder at tiltrække. Allerede den græske
Filosof Thales, der levede i Milet c. 600 f. Kr., kendte Ravets Evne til
efter Gnidning at tiltrække lette Ting som Dun og Avner. Thales sagde.
at Ravet blev besjælet, men han anede næppe, at den „ånd”, han ved
sin Gnidning kaldte frem af Ravet, en Gang skulde blive en mægtig
Hjælper for Menneskeslægten, en Hjælper, som på Menneskets Bud kunde forvandle Nat til Dag for ham, føre hans Tanker med Lynets Fart
til Jordens fJerneste Egne, bevare hans Stemmes Klang til kommende
Slegter, spende de brusende Bjærgbække for hans Vogn og Plov, ja, tvinge
dem til at koge hans Mad og varme hans Hus.


Privatlån og lån uten sikkerhet med betalingsanmerkninger


Foreløbig gik der over to årtusinder, før man nanede videre, end
Thales var nanet. Et betydningsfuldt Skridt fremad blev først gjort i
England af Dronning Elisabeths Læge, William Gilbert af Colchester
(1540-1603), da han udgav Bogen De magnete. Ved denne Bog har
Gilbert grundlagt bande Magnetismen og Elektriciteten som Videnskaber.
I forrige århundrede er de smeltet sammen til én, idet Elektriciteten
optog Magnetismen i sig og derved blev til en verdensomdannende Magt
efter at den først havde gennemlebet en lang Barndomstid, hvor de elek
triske kræfter, Mennesker frembragte, kun kunde bruges til Legeværk.

Men vi må dvæle lidt ved Barndomstidens Legeværk for bedre at blive
i Stand til at forstå senere Tiders Storværker.

Gilberts Værk.
Gilbert var en af de Mænd, som for 3 århundreder
siden indledede en ny Periode i Naturvidenskabens Historie, idet de fra
Studiet af Oldtidsforfatternes Skrifter om Naturen vendte sig til denne
selv, stillede den Sporgsmål og bøjede sig for dens Svar, selv om de
stred mod den hævdvundne Lærdom. I Fortalen til De magnetesiger
Gilbert selv:


Hvor kan man finde de bedste billigste kviklån


 
Sande Visdomselskere, frimodige ånder, som seger Kundskab ikke
blot i Boger, men hos Tingene selv, Eder alene har jeg tilegnet en ny
Slags Forskning. Men hvis nogen af Eder finder Grund til ikke at gå
ind pas de fremsatte Anskuelser, lad ham så fæste sin Opmærksomhed
ved den store Mengde af Eksperimenter og Opdagelser: thi det er dem.
der bringer al Forskning til at blomstre; vi har gravet dem op med megen
Meje, under søvnlose Nætter og med store Pengeofre.” – 1 18 år havde
han arbejdet med de Eksperimenter og Teorier, han fremførte i .De
magnete”. Der er intet i denne Bog.” siger han, som ikke er blevet
undersøgt og atter og atter udført og gentaget under vore øjne. Han
beder enhver, der føler Lyst til at gøre Indvendinger mod Resultaterne,
om at gentage Eksperimenterne for sig selv omhyggeligt, behändigt og
dygtigt, men ikke tankelost og klodset.-

Nuisance

There are two types of nuisances: private and public. The two have little to do with each other. A private nuisance is activity that interferes with the use and enjoyment of someone’s land; air and water pollution, noise, and bad odors are classic examples. Public nuisance has come to mean acts which inconvenience or interfere with public rights common to all. A public nuisance is often a criminal matter enforced by the local prosecuting attorney or the state’s attorney general. Obstructing a highway, operating a house of prostitution, or operating a gambling resort are examples of public nuisances. Overlap between public and private nuisances occurs when a public nuisance also interferes with a private owner’s use and enjoyment of his land.

The common law maintained a bright line between trespass and nuisance by requiring a direct invasion for trespass and excluding intangible intrusions such as smoke drift from being actionable as trespass. Modern technology has made it possible for intangible intrusions of invisible chemical particles to cause considerable damage to property and people, and as a result the courts, in cases such as Bradley, in $ 9.02[B], have had to re-think the lines between trespass and nuisance.

Private Nuisance

According to the complaint, the plaintiff is the owner of a residence which was constructed during the years 1978-1979. The complaint alleges that the resi- dence has a solar system which includes collectors on the roof to supply energy for heat and hot water and that after the plaintiff built his solar-heated house, the defendant purchased the lot adjacent to and immediately to the south of plaintiff’s lot and commenced planning construction of a home. *** ***

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Plaintiff’s home was the first residence built in the subdivision, and although plaintiff did not build his house in the center of the lot it was built in accordance with applicable restrictions. Plaintiff advised defendant that if the defendant’s home were built at the proposed site it would cause a shadowing effect on the solar collectors which would reduce the efficiency of the system and possibly damage the system. To avoid these adverse effects, plaintiff requested defendant to locate his home an additional several feet away from the plaintiff’s lot line, the exact number being disputed. Plaintiff and defendant failed to reach an agreement on the location of defendant’s home before defendant started construction. The Architectural Control Committee and the Planning Commission of the City of Muskego approved the defendant’s plans for his home, including its location on the lot. After such approval, the defendant apparently changed the grade of the property without prior notice to the Archi- tectural Control Committee. The problem with defendant’s proposed construc- tion, as far as the plaintiff’s interests are concerned, arises from a combination of the grade and the distance of defendant’s home from the defendant’s lot line. ***

As to the claim of private nuisance the circuit court concluded that the law of private nuisance requires the court to make “a comparative evaluation of conflicting interests and to weigh the gravity of the harm to the plaintiff against the utility of the defendant’s conduct.” The circuit court concluded: “A com ative evaluation of the conflicting interests, keeping in mind the omissions and commissions of both Prah and Maretti, indicates that defendant’s conduct does not cause the gravity of the harm which the plaintiff himself may well have avoided by proper planning.” ** ***

This state has long recognized that an owner of land does not have an absolute or unlimited right to use the land in a way which injures the rights of others. The rights of neighboring landowners are relative; the uses by one must not unreasonably impair the uses or enjoyment of the other. *** ***

The Restatement defines private nuisance as “a nontrespassory invasion of another’s interest in the private use and enjoyment of land.” Restatement (20) Torts $ 821D. The phrase “interest in the private use and enjoyment of land” as used in sec. 821D is broadly defined to include any disturbance of the enjoyment of property. The comment in the Restatement describes the landowner’s interest protected by private nuisance law as follows:

Although the defendant’s obstruction of the plaintiff’s access to sun- light appears to fall within the Restatement’s broad concept of a private nuisance as a nontrespassory invasion of another’s interest in the private use and enjoyment of land, the defendant asserts that he has a right to develop his property in compliance with statutes, ordinances and private covenants without regard to the effect of such development upon the plaintiff’s access to sunlight. In essence, the defendant is asking this court to hold that the private nuisance doctrine is not applicable in the instant case and that his right to develop his land is a right which is per se superior to his neighbor’s interest in access to sunlight. ***

The defendant is not completely correct in asserting that the common law did not protect a landowner’s access to sunlight across adjoining property. At English common law a landowner could acquire a right to receive sunlight across adjoining land by both express agreement and under the judge-made doctrine of “ancient lights.” Under the doctrine of ancient lights if the landowner had received sunlight across adjoining property for a specified period of time, the landowner was entitled to continue to receive unobstructed access to sunlight across the adjoining property. Under the doctrine the landowner acquired a negative prescriptive easement and could prevent the adjoining landowner from obstructing access to light.*

 

Legal tort before 1800

Before 1800, society was mostly agrarian and life was mostly agrarian and life was tough and inordinately short. Most accidents arose out of a non-mechanized farm life involving family members and neighbors. Most harm that was caused by strangers was intentional, so the law was little concerned with unintentional harms. As industry, urban life and transportation developed, unintended accidents became much more commonplace. The new risks posed by the developing industrial economy confronted the courts with problems that could not be resolved readily by the existing tort law; torts before then were based primarily on notions of causation and whether the harm resulting was direct or indirect.

The common law courts, on both sides of the Atlantic, proceeded to develop an accident law to cope with the changing society. The outgrowth of this period was the development and maturation of our fault-based negligence law. There is a difference of view among legal scholars about the development of negligence law. Some commentators assert that the selection of fault by the courts as the operative culpability standard for unintentional harms was designed to assist the development of business during the early period of industrialization.

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Other scholars, however, contend that fault was seen as the more appropriate requirement from a moral standpoint for persons and businesses, or, at least that personal moral culpability in combination with economic development considerations provided the underpinning for the development of negligence law. Both schools of thought tend to overlook the significance of the ancient heritage of the fault concept, its importance in Roman law, and the undoubted influence of both on the common law. There is a remarkable similarity between common law negligence and the negligence law of the civil systems in the rest of Europe which clearly have their heritage in Roman law.

In any event, today, negligence is the primary system of seeking compensation for unintentional harm. But modern negligence law is not the same as the negligence law of the 1800s. As society has changed, so has negligence law. Our study of torts will examine whether the right balance has been struck for our time. Our modern concept of fault has certainly broadened beyond personal moral culpability to include notions of social fault – societal standards of reasonable conduct. There also has been a flirtation in the last 40 years with the concept of strict liability in the products liability area. Abnormally dangerous activities, such as blasting, aerial pesticide spraying, and hazardous waste disposal, among others, have been handled under a regime of strict liability, not negligence. But negligence persists, even rejuvenates, except for these pockets of strict liability. We will study this continuing tension that exists between negligence and strict liability – two possible legal theories for dealing with unintentional harm.

Tort Claims and Damage Awards

The median personal injury jury award in all jury tort Cases is about 500.000 Eighty-five percent of all awards are below the arithmetic mean amount $465.000. Awards are much higher in medical malpractice and product liability 1 of more serious injuries in these contexts, but such cases comprise only about ten percent of all state tort filings, and the success rate in such the forty-nine percent average. Awards over $1 million against Individuals constituted only three percent of all awards, and eight per cent of all awards against businesses. Contrary to public perception, punitive damages are infrequently awarded.
 Use of legal claims when suing sunless tan studios
Medical malpractice awards have been news items in recent years with a number of reports of a crisis in the system. Attempts to cap awards in this area by statute or constitutional amendments are widespread. The actual incidence of medical malpractice is given little attention though recent reliable studies have reported high levels of medical errors. In 2000, the Institute of Medicine estimated that 98,000 preventable deaths occur each year in hospitals because of medical errors. A study of Medicare records by Health Grades, Inc. in July 2004 concluded that the actual figure was more than 2.5 times the Institute’s estimate. Health Grades projected that 263.864 preventable hospital deaths were occurring per year due to medical errors. Importantly, medical errors are determined by medical standards of practice not by legal standards. The cost of these errors to the Medicare system was reported to be in excess of $2.85 billion annually. The Health Grades 2004 report concluded that “despite the shocking and widely publicized statistics on preventable deaths due to medical errors in America’s hospitals, there is little evidence that patient safety has improved in the last five years.”

ACCIDENT COSTS

The costs of accidents every year are stupendous despite the downward trend in the accident rate. The National Safety Council estimates that in 2003, there were $605 billion in total economic losses from all types of accidents. The total economic loss figure includes medical expenses, wage losses, and property dam age. In addition, estimates of the “lost quality of life from all 2003 accidents are staggering —more than $1,350 billion. The lost quality of life values are cal- calculated from empirical studies based on what people pay to reduce safety and health risks, for example, in purchasing air bags, smoke detectors, etc. The studies provide the data for computations on life value and risks. The average economic loss for motor vehicle deaths in 2003 was $1.120,000, and $45,500 for disabling injuries. The motor vehicle accident costs for “lost quality of life in 2003 are estimated on average to be about $2.5 million per death and $135,500 per disabling injury.

Accident Data Summary

These unfortunate statistics teach us that accidents in the U.S. are a serious problem annually causing more than 100.000 deaths, 21 million disabling injuries, and costing over half a trillion dollars a year in economic and non-economic losses. In infectious disease terminology, this would be considered an epidemic. Improvements in accident prevention, safety design, safety education, safety regulations, tort law deterrence of unsafe conduct, and emergency medical care must be given high priorities by government and private parties. Traffic accidents remain a consistent annual national tragedy. Home accidents are becoming an equivalent problem in modern society. Improving and practicing safety must be a concern for each of us.

Public perception is that tort litigation is completely out of hand. Popular understanding is that the courts are overwhelmed with a flood of frivolous torts cases and that juries are granting excessive awards. Tort reform organizations have formed with considerable business backing to persuade the public and legislative bodies that changes are needed in the tort system. Proponents of reform have been remarkably successful in affecting public opinion and in lobbying for legislation in state legislatures and Congress. Proposals have been made that would make it more difficult to sue and more difficult to recover when suits are allowed, and that would restrict the size of compensatory and punitive damage awards.

No serious scholar of torts underestimates its flaws and the need for modification across a wide spectrum of areas. Our examination of the subject will provide us with the opportunity to examine proposals for reform. We should be guided, however, by an accurate picture ofthe current state of the torts court dockets and level of awards.

Reliable, independent studies demonstrate that the torts system is not in crisis. State court tort filings are down four percent since 1993 and comprise only about ten percent of all civil filings. Automobile negligence cases comprise about 60 percent of tort claims and have fallen 14 percent since 1996. Medical malpractice claims account for about eight percent, and product liability claims for two percent, respectively, of all state tort filings. Jury trials are rare, occur ring in only three percent of all tort case dispositions. More than 75 percent of tort cases are resolved by settlement or dismissal. Overall, the plaintiff success rate is only 49 percent in jury trials.

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Accidents in United States

Accidents are responsible for tens of thousands of denths and millions of disabling injuries every year in the United States. In 2003, there were 101,500 denths and 20.7 million disabling injuries attributable to accidents. The prin cipal causes of accidental deaths are motor vehicles, poisoning by solids and liq uids, falls, drowning, and fires. Close to half of all yearly accidental deaths are attributable to motor vehicle accidents.

The trend in accidental deaths and injuries has been generally downward since 1900. The overall death rate, however, has climbed slightly in recent years above the 1992 low water mark of 34.0 to a current rate of 34.9 acciden- tal deaths for every 100,000 Americans. Twelve people die in the United States every hour from an accident, twenty-four hours a day. Each minute, 30 people incur disabling injuries from an accident, twenty-four-seven.

Although the general trend of accidental deaths has been downward, in the last two decades the death rate has been rising. There has been an increase in motor vehicle deaths for the last ten years to 44,300 in 2003, up two percent from 2002. Motorcycle fatalities, based on Transportation Department records show an increase of 8 percent in 2004 to 4000 deaths. SUV accident deaths in 2004 increased 6 percent to 4735. While the real numbers of fatalities and injuries remain unacceptably high, the ratio of traffic deaths to miles driven has fallen to 1.56 deaths for every 100 million miles driven.

Since 1912. the overall death rate has fallen underably for accidents in homes, but there has been a disturbing upward trend in home related deaths and injuries since 1987. In 2003, there were 33.100 unintentional injury deaths in the home. Disabling injuries from acidents in the home are now at about three times the level of traffic injuries. The considerable reduction in workplace deaths is the one bright spot in the picture. In 1912. 20.000 employees last their lives in work accidents, whereas in 2008, with triple the work force only 4,300 lives were lost.

As indicated earlier, in 2003 there were 20.7 million disabling injuries from accidents: 7.9 million and 2.3 million were attributable to home and motor vehicle accidents, respectively. Alcohol is involved in about 10 percent of all types of injurious accidents and 41 percent of all traffic fatalities. Serious injury accidents in the home are about four times more likely than auto accidents. The injuries from home accidents, however, are generally less disabling than from auto collisions. Safety practices and devices have helped to reduce the accident rate consid erably. Seat belts in cars reduce the chance of death or serious injury by about 50 percent. Child safety seats save about 375 lives a year, Automobile airbags save close to 2250 lives a year. Airbags used with lap and shoulder safety belts offer the best crash protection for adult drivers and passengers, however, chil dren under 12 should be seated in rear sents to avoid risks of serious death.

 

What is all the fuss about Face Tan Water?

Lets ‘Face’ it!
Beauty trends come and go, and to be honest many of them shouldn’t have shown up in the first place! Hyaluronic Acid is NOT one of those ingredients.
Hyaluronic Acid is a key ingredient in Eco Tan Face Tan Water… But what are the benefits of Hyaluronic Acid?

Face Tan Water is our organic gradual liquid tanning serum/toner. This little gem is the all time best seller on board of Iceland Air and WOW air. It contains nothing artificial and is free from synthetic ingredients. Instead, it is made with only certified organic and natural ingredients sourced from Mother Nature.
Its calming, hydrating, and antioxidant properties are great for all skin types, even for rosacea, eczema and acne effected skin! Hyaluronic Acid (H.A) also has wonderful anti-ageing properties and is also one of the most effective hydrating ingredients for skin.

Let’s talk about skin benefits of Hyaluronic Acid
Youthful skin has the ability to hold water and retain balanced moisture with naturally occuring H.A, so as we age our skin loses it’s ability to maintain this and that is where H.A in our beauty products makes it’s star appearance!
Hyaluronic Acid is actually a vital natural substance which is part of our skin. It works to keep every aspect of the skin stable, protected and renewed. And it also holds large amounts of moisture to your skin avoiding dehydration and this can reduce effects of premature ageing too! What’s even more impressive is that H.A can do this for skin without over supplying moisture!
Did you know that too much water is a problem for skin because it causes key substances holding skin’s surface intact to break down? YES!
H.A can enhance skin moisture beyond comparison with anything else!

We break this down a bit more…
Unprotected sun exposure, damaging ingredients and harsh weather conditions can weaken your skin. H.A’s properties help to mitigate these issues, and when you use Face Tan Water as part of your daily skin regime you are feeding your skin with this incredible ingredient.
H.A also provides an antioxidant defence, this means it is one of the greatest multi-tasking products on the market to assist with anti-ageing and multiple skin issues… Do we want that? YES!
So, in the end H.A is the master of skin regimes.

CULT FACE TAN WATER WINS COVETED USA BEAUTY AWARD

Eco Tan-Eco by Sonya are absolutely blown away by their latest award all the way from the USA; revolutionary cult favourite FACE TAN WATER has just WON BEST FACE TANNER in Healing lifestyles 9th annual Earth Day Beauty Awards 2018.

The first & original Aussie made Certified Organic tanning range founded by Gold Coast single mum in 2010 after sister’s skin cancer is now an award winning multi-million dollar global phenomenon… Sonya’s tenacity and journey has given us a healthier alternative to tanning and sun safety.

Healing lifestyles 9th annual Earth Day beauty Awards 2018, now in their 9th Year, their Safe Beauty & Body team tirelessly puckered and blotted, slathered and lathered, cleansed and rinsed and – most importantly – ingredient-checked for ‘no-nasties’ until they came up with their picks for the haute monde of clean, green beauty in 2018.

Certified by the Organic Food Chain Australia, Eco By Sonya Driver x Eco Tan products are made with only organic and natural ingredients. NO NASTIES, NOTHING SYNTHETIC, NOTHING ARTIFICIAL. Just phenomenal ingredients handpicked from mother nature in all their glory.

AUSTRALIAN MADE – CERTIFIED ORGANIC – VEGAN – CRUELTY FREE – NON-TOXIC – NOTHING SYNTHETIC

Google parent company Alphabet held a secret ‘logistics summit’ last week with reps from FedEx and other shipping companies

Alphabet held a closed-door meeting with internal executives and external retailers last week to discuss potential investments and strategies in the logistics sector.

The event, which was held in Silicon Valley, was called the Alphabet Advanced Logistics Summit and hosted by Alphabet’s research and development unit, “X,” and its recently spun out infrastructure company Sidewalk Infrastructure Partners, the company confirmed to CNBC. The objective was to explore potential business models and investment opportunities in the e-commerce space with a focus in logistics and fulfillment, according to three people who attended and photos viewed by CNBC.

“We frequently bring together stakeholders from across various industries to exchange ideas and brainstorm ways that technology can deliver innovative solutions in areas like logistics,” a company spokesperson told CNBC in an emailed response.

The majority of attendees were from Alphabet, which had several teams present, according to the people, who asked for anonymity when discussing the confidential meeting. It also included representatives from external companies including FedEx, JD.com, Deliv, Flexe and a former Walmart SVP, said one of the people who attended.

The discussions come as the company tries to expand its digital shopping reach amid retail giants such as Amazon and Alibaba, both of which have invested significantly in retail, technology and logistics. Alphabet invested $550 million in China’s second-largest online shopping service, JD.com, last year and began selling some of its goods in March.

It also comes a few months after Sidewalk Labs spun out a separate entity in August called Sidewalk Infrastructure Partners, which is still backed by Alphabet and Sidewalk Labs. SIP focuses on owning, acquiring and investing in technology-enabled infrastructure, particularly in urban areas. Sidewalk Labs is known for working on a high-profile and controversial new urban smart city on the waterfront of Toronto, for which it released the master plan in June. That plan also included an underground “logistics hub.”

Analytics a major focus

The recent meeting’s discussions included predictive analytics, order fulfillment, package tracking, Bluetooth usage and drone delivery, according to the attendees.

Discussions also touched on how Amazon has hampered online retailers’ ability to reap proper value on their businesses.

Sidewalk Infrastructure Partners co-founders and co-CEOs Brian Barlow and Jonathan Winer were among the meeting’s main moderators. They outlined several points the company was using to consider potential business opportunities, including “Accelerating Fulfillment and Delivery” and “Automated, Advanced Warehousing.”

Alphabet executives seemed most interested in the analytics side of things, which could help customers predict what products they could buy and sell, attendees said. The company could break through in predictive fulfillment, which is an industry term that describes forecasting demand by predicting buyer and seller behavior. Discussions involved potentially being able to use the vast data from Google’s search queries and keywords.

“Expansion in the breadth of a fulfillment network requires either the flexible, low CapEx approach of an on-demand warehousing or a standardized, partially-automated facility using modular robotics,” read one Alphabet presentation slide titled “Key Question No. 3.” That slide gave examples of companies Fabric and Takeoff, Stord, Flexe and Darkstore.

Attendees also discussed the role of hardware and how drone delivery could be used. Wing, the drone company that spun out from Alphabet’s X division last year, beat Amazon in launching the nation’s first commercial retail delivery in partnership with Walgreens and FedEx last week. Alphabet aggressively ramped up transportation investments last year, many of which could conceivably be used in delivery.

“As last-mile delivery alternatives proliferate with the emergence of new companies and technologies, we anticipate the emergence of a marketplace to bid last-mile delivery across a wide range of options,” another one of Alphabet’s slides, titled “Key Question No. 1,” read.