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Gilberts Værk.-Guerickes Forsøg. – Ledere og Isolatorer. – Elektrisk Pendul og
Elektroskop. – Hvad er Elektricitet: – To Slags elektriske Tilstande.- Gnidnings-
elektrisermaskinen. – Leidnerflasken eller Kondensatoren. – Elektrisk Fordeling. –
Forsøg på at anvende Gnidningselektriciteten.
Ikke mindst, fordi Gilbert gik frem på den angivne Måde og viste
andre samme Vej, fortjener han at kaldes Grundlæggeren af den elektriske
Videnskab; ser vi alene på Resultaterne, må hans Arbejde kun kaldes
en ringe Begyndelse. – Hans Arbejde bestod væsentlig deri, at han for en stor Mængde forskellige Stoffer undersøgte, om de ligesom Rav fik
Tiltrækningskraft ved Gnidning. Det viste sig, at dette bl. a. var Tilfældet
med Diamant, Safir, Bjærgkrystal, Svovl, Harpiks. Glas m. m., medens der
var mange andre Stoffer og deriblandt navnlig Metallerne, som han ikke
kunde gøre tiltrækkende. Den ved Gnidning frembragte Tiltrækningskraft kaldte han den elektriske Kraft og de Stoffer, der bar sig ad
som Rav, kaldte
han elektriske, de
andre uelektriske disse sidste Benævnelser har man
imidlertid atter måttet opgive af Grunde, vi snart
skal lære at kende.
Selve Ordet Elektricitet har Gilbert
ikke brugt; det er
først indført adskilligt årtier senere, måske af Irlænderen
Boyle, der 1675
udgav en Bog med Titlen “Om mekanisk Frembrin-
gelse af Elektricitet“.
Gilberts magnetiske Undersøgelser bragte tilsyneladende mere betyd-
ningsfulde Resultater end de elektriske; men her havde han også et fyl-
digere Grundlag at bygge på. Allerede i Oldtiden vidste man, at visse
Jernmalm havde Evne til at tiltrække Jern; og på Gilberts Tid havde
Sømændene længe brugt Kompasset som Vejviser på deres Rejser. Et
sådant Kompas kunde simplest dannes af et Stykke af den tiltrækkende
Jernmalm, som lå på et Bræt, der svømmede i et Fad Vand: Malm
stykket vilde da altid vende en bestemt Side mod Nord. Malmen kaldtes
Magnetsten, vistnok fordi sådan Malm fandtes ved Magnesia i Lilleasien.
I Stedet for selve Malmen kunde man imidlertid bruge en tynd Stålstang,
som ved Strygning med den tiltrækkende Malm fik samme Egenskaber
som denne; anbragt på et svømmende Bræt eller ophængt, så at den
frit kunde dreje sig om en lodret Akse, vilde den indstille sig med den
ene Ende mod Nord og den anden mod Syd. At den retningsvisende
Stålstang (Magnetnål, Kompasnål) ikke pegede lige mod Nord, men
afveg lidt fra Nord-Sydlinjen og ulige meget på forskellige Steder af
Jorden, vidste man også på Gilberts Tid. Han samlede imidlertid al 11-
dens Viden om Magnetstenen og Kompasnålen til et ordnet Hele og
føjede talrige nye Oplysninger til.
Blandt andet fremhævede han klart Forskellen mellem den elektriske
Tiltrækningskraft hos gnedet Rav, Svovl, Glas O. s. v. og den ,magnetiske“
Tiltrækningskraft hos Magnetstenen og
hos Jern eller Stål, der var strøget med
den; tidligere havde man sammenblandet
disse Kræfter. Medens den elektriske Til-
trækning virker på alle lette Ting, hvad
Stof de end er af, virker den magnetiske
Tiltrækning kun på Jernmalm, Jern og Stål, altså på de Stoffer, der selv kan
blive magnetiske, men til Gengæld er
den som oftest langt stærkere end den elektriske. Medens den elektriske
Tiltrækningsevne kun holder sig kort Tid og navnlig svinder hurtigt
bort i fugtigt Vejr, er Magnetismen en naturlig og varig Egenskab hos
Magnetstenen; også hos Stål, hvor den fremkaldes ved Kunst, holder
den sig i lang Tid temmelig usvækket, særlig når det er hårdt Stål;
blødt Jern, som hurtigt og let bliver magnetisk allerede ved Nærmelsen
af en Magnetsten eller en Stålmagnet, kan derimod ikke bevare Magne-
tismen. Endvidere kan vi nævne, at den elektriske Tiltrækningsevne for-
deler sig helt anderledes over en gneden Stang af Glas, Svovl eller lign.
end den magnetiske over en Stålstang. Glasstangen bliver tiltrækkende
overalt, hvor man gnider den, Stålstangen kun i Nærheden af Enderne;
dypper man en Magnetstang i Jernfilspåner, hænger der et tykt Lag på
ude ved Enderne, men færre og færre ind mod Midten, og herinde i
Reglen slet ingen. Anbringer man Magnetstangen, så at den kan dreje
sig, vil den som nævnt stille sig således, at den peger mod Nord med
den ene Ende, der kaldes Nordenden eller Nordpolen”, mod Syd med
den anden Ende (Sydenden eller , Sydpolen“), medens den elektriske
Glasstang vilde stå lige godt i alle Retninger. Nærmer man på forskellige Måder to drejelige Magnetnåle til hinanden, viser det sig, at den
enes Nordende tiltrækker den andens Sydende, medens derimod
de to Nordender frastøder hinanden, og de to Sydender ligeledes
frastøder hinanden; at også elektriske
Legemer kan virke frastødende, om end
efter andre Regler, viste sig snart; men
dette havde Gilbert endnu ikke opdaget.
Hvis man har en Stålmagnet, kan man
let tilvejebringe en drejelig Magnetnål,
idet man med Stålmagnetens ene Ende
stryger en Strikkepind gentagne Gange,
stadig i samme Retning og derefter nedlægger Pinden i en Fure i en stor Kork-
I Tyskland lykkedes det Otto v. Guericke (1602-1686), Borgmester
i Magdeborg, bekendt som Luftpumpens Opfinder, at forstærke de elek-
triske Virkninger betydeligt, idet han lavede, hvad man kunde kalde den
første Elektrisermaskine. – Det var en Svovlkugle, gennem hvilken der
gik en Jernaksel med et Håndsving, så at det hele kunde anbringes i
et Stativ og drejes rundt. Når man under Omdrejningen holdt Hånden
– der måtte være tør — på Kuglen, blev denne stærkt elektrisk.
Guericke gjorde nu et par nye og mærkelige Opdagelser. Han så, at
et Dun, som blev tiltrukket af Kuglen, atter blev “frastødt af den, efter at
det havde berørt den; ja, når han tog Jernakslen med Kuglen i Hånden,
kunde han jage det frastødte Dun rundt i Luften, idet det hele
Tiden flygtede for Kuglen. Til den tidligere kendte elektriske Tiltrækning
kom der altså nu en elektrisk Frastødning.
Endvidere fandt Guericke, at det af Svovlkuglen frastødte Dun blev
tiltrukket af forskellige uelektriske Genstande, f. Eks. af hans eget
Legeme. Det fløj f. Eks. hen på hans Næse; men efter at det havde
rørt ved Næsen eller en Finger, kunde det atter tiltrækkes af Svovlkuglen, så at det altså kunde fare frem og tilbage mellem Kuglen og
For at gentage Guerickes Forsøg behøver man ikke at have nogen
Slags Elektrisermaskine. Svovlkuglen kan bl. a. erstattes af et Glasrør
(f. Eks. et Lampeglas), en Glasstang eller en Flaske, som man tørrer godt,
helst ved Varme, og derefter gnider med en Uldklud eller et Silketørklæde.
1 Stedet for et Dun kunde man bruge små, ganske tynde Papirstumper
eller tyndt Bladaluminium. Særlig godt til Gnidning af Glas er forøvrigt
en blød Læderlap, hvorpå der er strøget Amalgam, d. v. s. en Blanding
af Kviksølv og andet Metal. (Et godt Amalgam til dette Brug kan dannes
af Tin, Zink og Kviksølv. Men det er ikke så let at lave og købes derfor
helst tilberedt. Læderet indgnides med en lille smule Tælle eller renset
Svinefedt; Amalgamet pulveriseres fint og strøs på, hvorefter det ind-
gnides godt med en korkprop el. lign.).
Ved at gnide sin Svovlkugle i Mørke iagttog Guericke, at Gnidningen
frembragte et tydeligt, men svagt og uroligt Lys ved den gnidende Hånd.
Tillige kunde han altid under Gnidningen høre en svag Knitren, når
han nærmede Øret til Kuglen. Lignende Lys- og Lydfænomener blev
snart frembragt af andre; det viste sig, at man af stærkt elektriske Gen-
stande kunde trække små Gnister, der ledsagedes af svage knald, og
man anede, at dette var Lyn og Torden i formindsket Målestok.
Endvidere viste det sig, at elektriske Genstande kunde påvirke Følelsen.
Menneskets Kendskab til Elektriciteten må siges at være så gammelt
som Menneskeslægten selv; thi i Lyn og Torden har de elektriske Kræfter
fra de ældste Tider trådt Menneskene i Møde på en vildere og vold-
sommere Måde end de andre Naturkræfter. Men vi ved ikke, når Men-
nesket først lærte selv at frembringe elektriske Kræfter, eller hvem der
først har opfundet denne Kunst. Opfinderen kan have været en lille Dreng,
der for årtusinder siden under sin Leg ved Danmarks Kyst fandt et
Stykke Rav, pudsede det med en Flig af sin Skinddragt og opdagede, at
Ravet efter Gnidningen tiltrak Hårene i Skindet eller lette Dun. Men
den samme lagttagelse er sikkert gjort mange forskellige steder, og hvor-
fra Kundskaben derom først har udbredt sig i videre Kredse, kan ikke
Imidlertid er det Oldtidens Grækere, der har overleveret os de første
skriftlige Beretninger om denne mærkelige Egenskab hos Ravet, som de
vistnok fik fra Vesterhavets og Østersøens Kyster gennem fønikiske Sø-
mænd: og det er fra det græske Navn for Rav, , Elektron“, at Ordet
Elektricitet senere er afledet; Ordet Elektron skal forøvrigt selv være
dannet af et græsk Ord, som betyder at tiltrække. Allerede den græske
Filosof Thales, der levede i Milet c. 600 f. Kr., kendte Ravets Evne til
efter Gnidning at tiltrække lette Ting som Dun og Avner. Thales sagde.
at Ravet blev besjælet, men han anede næppe, at den „ånd”, han ved
sin Gnidning kaldte frem af Ravet, en Gang skulde blive en mægtig
Hjælper for Menneskeslægten, en Hjælper, som på Menneskets Bud kunde forvandle Nat til Dag for ham, føre hans Tanker med Lynets Fart
til Jordens fJerneste Egne, bevare hans Stemmes Klang til kommende
Slegter, spende de brusende Bjærgbække for hans Vogn og Plov, ja, tvinge
dem til at koge hans Mad og varme hans Hus.
Foreløbig gik der over to årtusinder, før man nanede videre, end
Thales var nanet. Et betydningsfuldt Skridt fremad blev først gjort i
England af Dronning Elisabeths Læge, William Gilbert af Colchester
(1540-1603), da han udgav Bogen De magnete. Ved denne Bog har
Gilbert grundlagt bande Magnetismen og Elektriciteten som Videnskaber.
I forrige århundrede er de smeltet sammen til én, idet Elektriciteten
optog Magnetismen i sig og derved blev til en verdensomdannende Magt
efter at den først havde gennemlebet en lang Barndomstid, hvor de elek
triske kræfter, Mennesker frembragte, kun kunde bruges til Legeværk.
Men vi må dvæle lidt ved Barndomstidens Legeværk for bedre at blive
i Stand til at forstå senere Tiders Storværker.
Gilbert var en af de Mænd, som for 3 århundreder
siden indledede en ny Periode i Naturvidenskabens Historie, idet de fra
Studiet af Oldtidsforfatternes Skrifter om Naturen vendte sig til denne
selv, stillede den Sporgsmål og bøjede sig for dens Svar, selv om de
stred mod den hævdvundne Lærdom. I Fortalen til De magnetesiger
Hvor kan man finde de bedste billigste kviklån
Sande Visdomselskere, frimodige ånder, som seger Kundskab ikke
blot i Boger, men hos Tingene selv, Eder alene har jeg tilegnet en ny
Slags Forskning. Men hvis nogen af Eder finder Grund til ikke at gå
ind pas de fremsatte Anskuelser, lad ham så fæste sin Opmærksomhed
ved den store Mengde af Eksperimenter og Opdagelser: thi det er dem.
der bringer al Forskning til at blomstre; vi har gravet dem op med megen
Meje, under søvnlose Nætter og med store Pengeofre.” – 1 18 år havde
han arbejdet med de Eksperimenter og Teorier, han fremførte i .De
magnete”. Der er intet i denne Bog.” siger han, som ikke er blevet
undersøgt og atter og atter udført og gentaget under vore øjne. Han
beder enhver, der føler Lyst til at gøre Indvendinger mod Resultaterne,
om at gentage Eksperimenterne for sig selv omhyggeligt, behändigt og
dygtigt, men ikke tankelost og klodset.-
There are two types of nuisances: private and public. The two have little to do with each other. A private nuisance is activity that interferes with the use and enjoyment of someone’s land; air and water pollution, noise, and bad odors are classic examples. Public nuisance has come to mean acts which inconvenience or interfere with public rights common to all. A public nuisance is often a criminal matter enforced by the local prosecuting attorney or the state’s attorney general. Obstructing a highway, operating a house of prostitution, or operating a gambling resort are examples of public nuisances. Overlap between public and private nuisances occurs when a public nuisance also interferes with a private owner’s use and enjoyment of his land.
The common law maintained a bright line between trespass and nuisance by requiring a direct invasion for trespass and excluding intangible intrusions such as smoke drift from being actionable as trespass. Modern technology has made it possible for intangible intrusions of invisible chemical particles to cause considerable damage to property and people, and as a result the courts, in cases such as Bradley, in $ 9.02[B], have had to re-think the lines between trespass and nuisance.
According to the complaint, the plaintiff is the owner of a residence which was constructed during the years 1978-1979. The complaint alleges that the resi- dence has a solar system which includes collectors on the roof to supply energy for heat and hot water and that after the plaintiff built his solar-heated house, the defendant purchased the lot adjacent to and immediately to the south of plaintiff’s lot and commenced planning construction of a home. *** ***
Lån op til 15.000 kroner. Få svar allerede idag
Plaintiff’s home was the first residence built in the subdivision, and although plaintiff did not build his house in the center of the lot it was built in accordance with applicable restrictions. Plaintiff advised defendant that if the defendant’s home were built at the proposed site it would cause a shadowing effect on the solar collectors which would reduce the efficiency of the system and possibly damage the system. To avoid these adverse effects, plaintiff requested defendant to locate his home an additional several feet away from the plaintiff’s lot line, the exact number being disputed. Plaintiff and defendant failed to reach an agreement on the location of defendant’s home before defendant started construction. The Architectural Control Committee and the Planning Commission of the City of Muskego approved the defendant’s plans for his home, including its location on the lot. After such approval, the defendant apparently changed the grade of the property without prior notice to the Archi- tectural Control Committee. The problem with defendant’s proposed construc- tion, as far as the plaintiff’s interests are concerned, arises from a combination of the grade and the distance of defendant’s home from the defendant’s lot line. ***
As to the claim of private nuisance the circuit court concluded that the law of private nuisance requires the court to make “a comparative evaluation of conflicting interests and to weigh the gravity of the harm to the plaintiff against the utility of the defendant’s conduct.” The circuit court concluded: “A com ative evaluation of the conflicting interests, keeping in mind the omissions and commissions of both Prah and Maretti, indicates that defendant’s conduct does not cause the gravity of the harm which the plaintiff himself may well have avoided by proper planning.” ** ***
This state has long recognized that an owner of land does not have an absolute or unlimited right to use the land in a way which injures the rights of others. The rights of neighboring landowners are relative; the uses by one must not unreasonably impair the uses or enjoyment of the other. *** ***
The Restatement defines private nuisance as “a nontrespassory invasion of another’s interest in the private use and enjoyment of land.” Restatement (20) Torts $ 821D. The phrase “interest in the private use and enjoyment of land” as used in sec. 821D is broadly defined to include any disturbance of the enjoyment of property. The comment in the Restatement describes the landowner’s interest protected by private nuisance law as follows:
Although the defendant’s obstruction of the plaintiff’s access to sun- light appears to fall within the Restatement’s broad concept of a private nuisance as a nontrespassory invasion of another’s interest in the private use and enjoyment of land, the defendant asserts that he has a right to develop his property in compliance with statutes, ordinances and private covenants without regard to the effect of such development upon the plaintiff’s access to sunlight. In essence, the defendant is asking this court to hold that the private nuisance doctrine is not applicable in the instant case and that his right to develop his land is a right which is per se superior to his neighbor’s interest in access to sunlight. ***
The defendant is not completely correct in asserting that the common law did not protect a landowner’s access to sunlight across adjoining property. At English common law a landowner could acquire a right to receive sunlight across adjoining land by both express agreement and under the judge-made doctrine of “ancient lights.” Under the doctrine of ancient lights if the landowner had received sunlight across adjoining property for a specified period of time, the landowner was entitled to continue to receive unobstructed access to sunlight across the adjoining property. Under the doctrine the landowner acquired a negative prescriptive easement and could prevent the adjoining landowner from obstructing access to light.*
The median personal injury jury award in all jury tort Cases is about 500.000 Eighty-five percent of all awards are below the arithmetic mean amount $465.000. Awards are much higher in medical malpractice and product liability 1 of more serious injuries in these contexts, but such cases comprise only about ten percent of all state tort filings, and the success rate in such the forty-nine percent average. Awards over $1 million against Individuals constituted only three percent of all awards, and eight per cent of all awards against businesses. Contrary to public perception, punitive damages are infrequently awarded.
Use of legal claims when suing sunless tan studios
Medical malpractice awards have been news items in recent years with a number of reports of a crisis in the system. Attempts to cap awards in this area by statute or constitutional amendments are widespread. The actual incidence of medical malpractice is given little attention though recent reliable studies have reported high levels of medical errors. In 2000, the Institute of Medicine estimated that 98,000 preventable deaths occur each year in hospitals because of medical errors. A study of Medicare records by Health Grades, Inc. in July 2004 concluded that the actual figure was more than 2.5 times the Institute’s estimate. Health Grades projected that 263.864 preventable hospital deaths were occurring per year due to medical errors. Importantly, medical errors are determined by medical standards of practice not by legal standards. The cost of these errors to the Medicare system was reported to be in excess of $2.85 billion annually. The Health Grades 2004 report concluded that “despite the shocking and widely publicized statistics on preventable deaths due to medical errors in America’s hospitals, there is little evidence that patient safety has improved in the last five years.”
The costs of accidents every year are stupendous despite the downward trend in the accident rate. The National Safety Council estimates that in 2003, there were $605 billion in total economic losses from all types of accidents. The total economic loss figure includes medical expenses, wage losses, and property dam age. In addition, estimates of the “lost quality of life from all 2003 accidents are staggering —more than $1,350 billion. The lost quality of life values are cal- calculated from empirical studies based on what people pay to reduce safety and health risks, for example, in purchasing air bags, smoke detectors, etc. The studies provide the data for computations on life value and risks. The average economic loss for motor vehicle deaths in 2003 was $1.120,000, and $45,500 for disabling injuries. The motor vehicle accident costs for “lost quality of life in 2003 are estimated on average to be about $2.5 million per death and $135,500 per disabling injury.
Accident Data Summary
These unfortunate statistics teach us that accidents in the U.S. are a serious problem annually causing more than 100.000 deaths, 21 million disabling injuries, and costing over half a trillion dollars a year in economic and non-economic losses. In infectious disease terminology, this would be considered an epidemic. Improvements in accident prevention, safety design, safety education, safety regulations, tort law deterrence of unsafe conduct, and emergency medical care must be given high priorities by government and private parties. Traffic accidents remain a consistent annual national tragedy. Home accidents are becoming an equivalent problem in modern society. Improving and practicing safety must be a concern for each of us.
Public perception is that tort litigation is completely out of hand. Popular understanding is that the courts are overwhelmed with a flood of frivolous torts cases and that juries are granting excessive awards. Tort reform organizations have formed with considerable business backing to persuade the public and legislative bodies that changes are needed in the tort system. Proponents of reform have been remarkably successful in affecting public opinion and in lobbying for legislation in state legislatures and Congress. Proposals have been made that would make it more difficult to sue and more difficult to recover when suits are allowed, and that would restrict the size of compensatory and punitive damage awards.
No serious scholar of torts underestimates its flaws and the need for modification across a wide spectrum of areas. Our examination of the subject will provide us with the opportunity to examine proposals for reform. We should be guided, however, by an accurate picture ofthe current state of the torts court dockets and level of awards.
Reliable, independent studies demonstrate that the torts system is not in crisis. State court tort filings are down four percent since 1993 and comprise only about ten percent of all civil filings. Automobile negligence cases comprise about 60 percent of tort claims and have fallen 14 percent since 1996. Medical malpractice claims account for about eight percent, and product liability claims for two percent, respectively, of all state tort filings. Jury trials are rare, occur ring in only three percent of all tort case dispositions. More than 75 percent of tort cases are resolved by settlement or dismissal. Overall, the plaintiff success rate is only 49 percent in jury trials.
Accidents are responsible for tens of thousands of denths and millions of disabling injuries every year in the United States. In 2003, there were 101,500 denths and 20.7 million disabling injuries attributable to accidents. The prin cipal causes of accidental deaths are motor vehicles, poisoning by solids and liq uids, falls, drowning, and fires. Close to half of all yearly accidental deaths are attributable to motor vehicle accidents.
The trend in accidental deaths and injuries has been generally downward since 1900. The overall death rate, however, has climbed slightly in recent years above the 1992 low water mark of 34.0 to a current rate of 34.9 acciden- tal deaths for every 100,000 Americans. Twelve people die in the United States every hour from an accident, twenty-four hours a day. Each minute, 30 people incur disabling injuries from an accident, twenty-four-seven.
Although the general trend of accidental deaths has been downward, in the last two decades the death rate has been rising. There has been an increase in motor vehicle deaths for the last ten years to 44,300 in 2003, up two percent from 2002. Motorcycle fatalities, based on Transportation Department records show an increase of 8 percent in 2004 to 4000 deaths. SUV accident deaths in 2004 increased 6 percent to 4735. While the real numbers of fatalities and injuries remain unacceptably high, the ratio of traffic deaths to miles driven has fallen to 1.56 deaths for every 100 million miles driven.
Since 1912. the overall death rate has fallen underably for accidents in homes, but there has been a disturbing upward trend in home related deaths and injuries since 1987. In 2003, there were 33.100 unintentional injury deaths in the home. Disabling injuries from acidents in the home are now at about three times the level of traffic injuries. The considerable reduction in workplace deaths is the one bright spot in the picture. In 1912. 20.000 employees last their lives in work accidents, whereas in 2008, with triple the work force only 4,300 lives were lost.
As indicated earlier, in 2003 there were 20.7 million disabling injuries from accidents: 7.9 million and 2.3 million were attributable to home and motor vehicle accidents, respectively. Alcohol is involved in about 10 percent of all types of injurious accidents and 41 percent of all traffic fatalities. Serious injury accidents in the home are about four times more likely than auto accidents. The injuries from home accidents, however, are generally less disabling than from auto collisions. Safety practices and devices have helped to reduce the accident rate consid erably. Seat belts in cars reduce the chance of death or serious injury by about 50 percent. Child safety seats save about 375 lives a year, Automobile airbags save close to 2250 lives a year. Airbags used with lap and shoulder safety belts offer the best crash protection for adult drivers and passengers, however, chil dren under 12 should be seated in rear sents to avoid risks of serious death.
Lets ‘Face’ it!
Beauty trends come and go, and to be honest many of them shouldn’t have shown up in the first place! Hyaluronic Acid is NOT one of those ingredients.
Hyaluronic Acid is a key ingredient in Eco Tan Face Tan Water… But what are the benefits of Hyaluronic Acid?
Face Tan Water is our organic gradual liquid tanning serum/toner. This little gem is the all time best seller on board of Iceland Air and WOW air. It contains nothing artificial and is free from synthetic ingredients. Instead, it is made with only certified organic and natural ingredients sourced from Mother Nature.
Its calming, hydrating, and antioxidant properties are great for all skin types, even for rosacea, eczema and acne effected skin! Hyaluronic Acid (H.A) also has wonderful anti-ageing properties and is also one of the most effective hydrating ingredients for skin.
Let’s talk about skin benefits of Hyaluronic Acid
Youthful skin has the ability to hold water and retain balanced moisture with naturally occuring H.A, so as we age our skin loses it’s ability to maintain this and that is where H.A in our beauty products makes it’s star appearance!
Hyaluronic Acid is actually a vital natural substance which is part of our skin. It works to keep every aspect of the skin stable, protected and renewed. And it also holds large amounts of moisture to your skin avoiding dehydration and this can reduce effects of premature ageing too! What’s even more impressive is that H.A can do this for skin without over supplying moisture!
Did you know that too much water is a problem for skin because it causes key substances holding skin’s surface intact to break down? YES!
H.A can enhance skin moisture beyond comparison with anything else!
We break this down a bit more…
Unprotected sun exposure, damaging ingredients and harsh weather conditions can weaken your skin. H.A’s properties help to mitigate these issues, and when you use Face Tan Water as part of your daily skin regime you are feeding your skin with this incredible ingredient.
H.A also provides an antioxidant defence, this means it is one of the greatest multi-tasking products on the market to assist with anti-ageing and multiple skin issues… Do we want that? YES!
So, in the end H.A is the master of skin regimes.
Eco Tan-Eco by Sonya are absolutely blown away by their latest award all the way from the USA; revolutionary cult favourite FACE TAN WATER has just WON BEST FACE TANNER in Healing lifestyles 9th annual Earth Day Beauty Awards 2018.
The first & original Aussie made Certified Organic tanning range founded by Gold Coast single mum in 2010 after sister’s skin cancer is now an award winning multi-million dollar global phenomenon… Sonya’s tenacity and journey has given us a healthier alternative to tanning and sun safety.
Healing lifestyles 9th annual Earth Day beauty Awards 2018, now in their 9th Year, their Safe Beauty & Body team tirelessly puckered and blotted, slathered and lathered, cleansed and rinsed and – most importantly – ingredient-checked for ‘no-nasties’ until they came up with their picks for the haute monde of clean, green beauty in 2018.
Certified by the Organic Food Chain Australia, Eco By Sonya Driver x Eco Tan products are made with only organic and natural ingredients. NO NASTIES, NOTHING SYNTHETIC, NOTHING ARTIFICIAL. Just phenomenal ingredients handpicked from mother nature in all their glory.
AUSTRALIAN MADE – CERTIFIED ORGANIC – VEGAN – CRUELTY FREE – NON-TOXIC – NOTHING SYNTHETIC
The European Union has agreed to give the U.K. three more months to exit the bloc.
European Council President Donald Tusk, who chaired the talks among the 27 European governments, announced the decision Monday morning on Twitter: “The EU27 has agreed that it will accept the U.K.’s request for a Brexit flextension until 31 January 2020. The decision is expected to be formalised through a written procedure.”
This means that the U.K. will be able to leave the EU at any point before January 31, provided that its Parliament approves the exit agreement that Prime Minister Boris Johnson concluded with the other 27 EU leaders earlier this month.
Tusk’s announcement came after a meeting between the 27 European ambassadors, in Brussels, where they signed off on a third delay.
A draft document prepared ahead of that meeting, signed on October 27, and seen by CNBC said: “With a view to allowing for the finalisation of all steps necessary for the ratification of the Withdrawal Agreement, including the obtaining of the consent of the European Parliament, the European Council agrees to a further extension.”
“It notes that the Withdrawal Agreement will enter into force on the first day of the month following the completion of the ratification procedures by the Parties during this period, which ends at the latest on 31 January 2020,” the same document states.
The U.K. asked the EU earlier this month to be given until January 31 to leave the EU. A few days later, the U.K. Parliament voted in favor of Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s revised Withdrawal Agreement, but said once again that it needed more time to approve all the necessary legislation.
Eco Tan-Eco by Sonya pledged to raise much needed funds for the RAFIKI MWEMA Charity.
Determined to raise $100,000 fast, Eco Tan-Eco by Sonya has donated 2000 x Certified Organic Glory Oil for sale with 100% of the sales going directly to RAFIKI MWEMA for much needed funding to continue their incredible work with the children of Kenya.
“Imagine you are a child with no one in the world to care for you. Imagine being as young as 2 years old and being shunned and beaten for YOUR sin of being horrifically abused.” ‘Rafiki Mwema’ (translating to Loyal Friend) Kenya was born from the need to support very young girls and boys in Kenya who have suffered huge trauma.
On Saturday 22 May, within 1 week, more than $100,000 was raised for the children at Rafiki Mwema!
I’m convinced that this is the most effective trade I’ve ever uncovered…
And my back-testing proves it.
You can trade just one symbol – VXX – and consistently make money in the stock market. Regardless of what direction the market is moving.
VXX is the symbol for the iPath Series B S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures ETN. Don’t let that long name confuse you… Its performance is based on volatility. An exchange-traded note (ETN) is very similar to an exchange-traded fund (ETF).
VXX is one of the most actively traded exchange-traded products in the United States.
This ETN tracks the futures on the CBOE Volatility Index, which portrays the price volatility embedded in the option prices of the S&P 500 Index for the next 30 days. But let’s not get lost in the nuances.
All you need to understand is that VXX is a fantastic way to grab quick, predictable profits from the trading frequency in the market.
The beautiful aspect of this system is that we don’t care if the market is going up or down, just that it’s volatile. And these days, I’m not too worried about a lack of volatility.
In fact, this is a great way to make a lot of money even if the market is sliding.
The only catch to this strategy is that you have to wait until the market and VXX give you a clear signal.
The U.S. and China have made progress in trade discussions and have come close to finalizing parts of a phase one deal, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative said Friday.
The agency issued a statement outlining the status of discussions following a conversation that U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin had with Chinese Vice Premier Liu He.
“They made headway on specific issues and the two sides are close to finalizing some sections of the agreement,” USTR said. “Discussions will go on continuously at the deputy level, and the principals will have another call in the near future.”
The news helped to send major U.S. stock indexes to their Friday highs.
The world’s two largest economies have pushed for a trade agreement as they try to end a potentially devastating series of tariffs on hundreds of billions of dollars worth of each other’s goods. President Donald Trump aims to resolve longstanding concerns about Chinese theft of U.S. intellectual property and forced technology transfers, and secure more Chinese purchases of U.S. agricultural goods.
THE NEW NOT FOR PROFIT CERTIFIED ORGANIC HAND & NAIL CREAM SAVING THE LIVES OF HUNDREDS OF ABUSED CHILDREN.
Eco by Sonya – NOT for profit product launched worldwide.
Hand & Nail Cream 100% of the profit goes to Rafiki Mwema! The hand & Nail Cream which moisturizes, regenerates, soothes & makes change in this world.
“Imagine you are a child with no one in the world to care for you. Imagine being as young as 2 years old and being shunned and beaten for YOUR sin of being horrifically abused.”
Earlier in the year we donated AUD 100.000 for the Charity Rafiki Mwema, that was an instant fix. BUT what you DIDN’T know is that a glorious plan was put in place to provide a long term solution to help Rafiki Mwema be sustainable. Eco Tan – Eco by Sonya had an idea to bring out a certified organic product with 100% of the profits to go directly to helping the wonderful women who run Rafiki Mwema https://rafikimwema.com/
Our passion is about Green Clean Beauty and about helping others. It’s what drives us. ECO TAN – Eco by Sonya is a for profit company, lifting others up.
Charity organisation Rafiki Mwema, holding the hand of the future, has up to 70 children in 4 safe houses on a farm in Kenya. The charity has also built a video link safe-room in the court in Nakuru, Kenya as the children that are raped get interrogated in courtrooms by the abuser. As young as 3 years old. We could tell you things that will never leave you. With our and your support Rafiki Mwema can provide safe houses in Kenya for young girls and boys who have experienced horrific abuse. At present they safe guard 70 children across four houses teaching love, respect and empathy.
The NEW Eco by Sonya Driver Hand & Nail Cream for Rafiki Mwema is a beautiful certified organic hand & nail cream designed to replenish and retain moisture to your skin. Made using only the kindest organic and natural ingredients like Organic Mango, Sea Buckthorn and Vitamin C that are known to soothe, hydrate & help restore rough, dry and stressed skin. Our Hand & Nail Cream will provide you with super soft skin, strong nails and a full heart!